• Geographical location
Geographical location
21-09-2016

ĐỊA LÝ


Country name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam

 Area: 331.210 km² 

Capital: Hà Nội

Geographical location: Lying on the eastern part of the Indochinese peninsula, Vietnam is a strip of land shaped like the letter “S”. China borders it to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, the Eastern Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the east and south..

Population: According to survey results, in 2014 the population of Vietnam is 90728.9 thousand people, including 44758.1 thousand men (accounting for 49.33%) and 45970.8 thousand women (accounting for 50.67%). 

(Source: statistical general department)

Temperature: The average temperature in Vietnam 21°C to 27°C ranged from ascending and from north to south. In Summer, average temperatures across the country is 25°C (23°C Hanoi, Hue, 25°C, 26°C Ho Chi Minh City). Winter in the north, down to the lowest temperature in December and January. In the northern mountainous regions such as Sa Pa, Tam Dao and Hoang Lien Son, temperatures down to 0°C with snow.

Vietnam is of great solar radiation with hours of sunshine from 1400-3000 hours/year. Average annual rainfall is 1,500 to 2,000 mm. Air humidity around 80%. Given the influence of monsoon and complex topography, Vietnam is often prone to disasters such as storms, floods and droughts.

Climate: Vietnam is located in the tropical belt internal, year-round high temperatures and high humidity. Northern influenced by the Chinese mainland should more or less mainland climate. The East Sea profound impact on the nature of the humid tropical monsoon mainland. Tropical monsoon climate does not spread evenly moist throughout the territory of Vietnam, forming regions with markedly different climate. Vietnam climate change seasonally and by region from low to high, from north to south and from east to west. Given the strong influence of the northeast monsoon, so the average temperature in Vietnam is lower than average temperatures in many other countries in Asia the same latitude.

Vietnam can be divided into two major climate regions: (1) North (from Hai Van Pass out) is a tropical monsoon climate, with four distinct seasons (Spring-Lower-fall-winter), under the influence of the northeast monsoon (from the Asian continent) and southeast monsoon, high humidity. (2) Southern (from the Hai Van Pass on) are less influenced by the monsoon tropical climate is quite conditioning, hot throughout the year and divided into two seasons (dry and rainy season).

Besides, due to the topographical structure, Vietnam has the sub-climate regions. There where the temperate climate, such as Sa Pa, Lao Cai Province; Da Lat, Lam Dong province; where under the continental climate such as Lai Chau, Son La.

Terrain: Vietnam diverse: mountains, plains, coast and continental shelf, reflecting the historical development of geology, topography in the environment long monsoon, hot and humid, strongly weathered. The topography is lower from the Northwest - Southeast, which is evident in the flows of major rivers.

Hilly accounted for 3/4 of the territory, but mainly low hills. Terrain lower than 1,000 m up 85% of the territory. High mountains above 2,000 meters account for only 1%. Vietnam hills form a large bow facing the Eastern Sea, 1,400 km length, from the Northwest to the Southeast. The most massive mountain ranges are located in the west and northwest with top Franciscan highest Phang Indochinese Peninsula (3.143m). Nearer to the east, the mountain range is lower and ends with a coastal strip of lowland. From Hai Van pass to the South, the terrain easier. There is no long limestone mountain ranges that have large blocks of granite, sometimes rising to the pinnacle; the rest is the plateau of the Highlands in a row, raised the eastern edge of the Truong Son.

Delta accounts for a quarter of the land area of ​​mountains and hills separated into several areas. At the two ends of the country there are two large plains, the fertile plain of Tonkin (Red River basin, large 16,700 km²) and the southern delta (Mekong River basin, large 40,000 km²). Located between two major deltas is a chain of small deltas, distributed along the central coast, from the plains of the Ma River basin (Thanh Hoa) to Phan Thiet with a total area of ​​15,000 km².

Vietnam faces the east, south and southwest coast looking out to sea with 3,260 km from Mong Cai in the North to Ha Tien in the Southwest. Sea East part of Vietnam's sovereignty extended to the east and southeast, including the continental shelf, the big island and small islands surrounded. Tonkin Gulf alone has a population concentration of 3,000 islands in the region Ha Long Bay, Bai Tu Long, Cat Hai, Cat Ba, Bach Long Vi ... Further to the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands. South-West and South, there are groups of islands including Con Son, Phu Quoc and Tho Chu.
 

Rivers: Vietnam has a dense network of rivers (2360 over 10 km long river), flowing in two main directions of Northwest and Southeast and arcs. The two largest rivers are the Red River and Mekong River delta, create two vast and fertile. System of rivers and streams are added each year to 310 billion m³. The water supply for rivers and streams flood season and dry season. Flood season accounts for 70-80% of water all year and often cause flooding. 

Land, plants, animals:

Land in Vietnam is very diverse, with high fertility and favorable for the development of agriculture and forestry. Vietnam has a rich flora and diverse (approximately 14 600 plant species). The vegetation is mainly tropical forests, including trees sunshine, high temperature and high humidity.

The fauna in Vietnam as abundant and diverse, including many rare species recorded in the Red Book of the world. Presently, there are 275 species of mammals, 800 bird species, 180 reptile species, 80 amphibian species, 2,400 species of fish, 5,000 species of insects. (Dense forests, limestone mountain forests, and multi-canopied forest habitats of many species of monkeys, langurs, gibbons and wild cats. The langur species endemic to Vietnam is white head langurs, Delacour's langur, the black langur . birds are also many species of birds such as pheasant neck cavity ocellata. Alpine North have many furred wild animals like bear, raccoons, foxes, civet ...)

 

Vietnam has been preserved and conserved a number of national parks of rare biodiversity, such as the Hoang Lien Son national park (Fansipang Pang mountain area, Lao Cai province), the Cat Ba national park (Quang Ninh province), the Cuc Phuong national park (Ninh Binh province), the Phong Nha-Ke Bang national park (Quang Binh province), the Bach Ma national park (Thua Thien Hue province), the Con Dao national park (Con Son Island, Ba Ria-Vung Tau province), the Nam Cat Tien national park (Dong Nai province) ... These national parks are home for Vietnamese and international biologists and scientists and are also attracted ecotourism regions. In addition, the UNESCO recognized 8 biosphere reserves in Vietnam is the world's biosphere reserves such as Can Gio, Cat Tien, Cat Ba, Red River Delta, Cu Lao Cham, Mui Ca Mau National Park ...

 

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